Government Policy Approach to Environmental Conflicts among the Niger Delta Communities: Implication to 2015 and Post 2015 Sustainable Development Goals
The present study is focused on the public perception of government approach to the environmental challenges in the region of Niger Delta and its implication to environmentally-related conflict resolution and inclusive society. Four states were randomly selected while eight local government areas, 24 communities and 500 respondents (18+) were randomly selected for data collection. Our evaluation and analysis were focused on the public perception of the government policy approach in resolving the environmentally-related conflict in the region, support to this approach and the likelihood of youth involvement in violent agitation in the region. From our data, we pinpointed and demonstrated the weaknesses and unpopular nature of the dominant policy approach in the region as well as the latent energy of environmental conflict in the region. For policy relevance of the study, we ran a statistical cross examination on prevailing sociological issues in the region relevant to sustainable environmental and conflict resolution policy in the region. Our study established some factors relevant to inclusive society policy in achieving sustainable peace in the region such as public perception of government approach to their environmental challenges, socially-inclusive mode of consultation, age etc. in view of the strength of our data, the findings and suggestion of the study will help the Nigerian government to the threshold of people oriented and sustainable policies in dealing with the ceaseless conflict agitations in the region. The study aims to contribute in the current social scientific literature, the point of individual involvement in environmental conflict in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
Ajero, et al. (2016). Academe-Industry Partnership: Basis for Enhanced Learning Guide in the New Science General Education Course. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 4(4), 96-102.
Ajodo-Adebanjoko, A. (2017). Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the Niger Delta region: A collective non-violent approach. African Journal on Conflict Resolution, 17(1), 9-27. Akinade, E. A. (2005). Dictionary of Guidance & Counseling: Counseling Psychology Lagos: Olu-Akin publishers.
Amnesty International. (2009). Nigeria: petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger delta – report. London: Amnesty International Publications Index number: AFR 44/017/2009 Bernstein, D. A., Clark-Stewart, A., Penner, L. A., Roy, E. J. & Wickens, C. D. (2000). Psychology, New York: Houghton Mifflin. Isike, C. (2005). Federal, state and resource control in Nigeria, Benin: F Parker Publishing Dollard, J., Miller, N. E., Doob, L. W., Mowrer, O. H. & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven: CT, US. Ede, P. N. & Edokpa, D. O. (2015). Regional air quality of the Nigeria’s Niger delta. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 4, 7-15. Enetimi, I. S. & Izah, S. C. (2017). A Review of Impacts of Gas Flaring on Vegetation and Water Resources in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment, 2(4), 48-55. Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2017). Implementation of the SDGs A National Voluntary Review. Abuja: Federal Government Publication.
Ibeanu, O. (2006). Civil society and conflict management in the Niger Delta: Scoping gaps for policy and advocacy. Lagos: CLEEN Foundation. Kadafa, A. A. (2012). The Environmental Impacts of Oil Exploration and Exploitation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Global Journal of science frontier, environment and earth sciences, 13(3), 19-28. Luqman, S. (2011). Democratic Governance and the Management of Oil conflict in Nigeria’s Niger Delta: Policy options and challenges. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 5(2), 83-91.
Nduka, J. K., Orisakwe, O. E. & Ezenwa, T. E. (2009). Effect of effluents from Warri refinery and petrochemical company on water and soil qualities of contiguous host and impacted on communities of Delta State, Nigeria. The Open Environmental and Toxicology Journal, 1, 11–17.
Nuhu, M. S. & Ali, D. (2015). Assessment of Public Participation in resolving Environmental Problems in Delta State, Nigeria. World Environment, 5(1), 28-37. Nworu, O. C. (2017). Ogoni clean-up, Remediation and Satisfactory Environment Favorable to Its Development: Obligations of the Nigerian State. World Environment, 7(2), 31-41.
OBAFEMI, A. A., ELUDOYIN, O. S. & AKINBOSOLA, B. M. J. (2012). Public Perception of Environmental Pollution in Warri, Nigeria. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, 16(3), 233–240. Okumagba, P. O. (2012). Militancy and Human Rights Violation in Niger Delta. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(2), 29-37. Onwubiko, O. F., Azizan, A., Khairuddin, I. & Jamilah, O. (2013). International Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences, 1(6), 122-129. Ortese, P. T. (2004). Counseling against political thuggery in Nigeria’s nascent Democracy. Journal of Counseling & Development: Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) Benue State chapter, 1(1), 133-142. Osarenren, N. (2000). Psychological violence against women and socio-economic class: Implication for Counseling. Journal of Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON), 18(2), 367-371. Schaeter, R. T. & Lamm, R. P. (1998). Sociology. New York: McGraw-Hill Company.
Shehu, N. M. & Ali, D. (2015). Assessment of the Public Participation in Solving Environmental Problems in Delta State, Nigeria. World Environment, 5(1), 28-38. Shell. (1999). People and the Environment: Annual Report Lagos: SPDC. Steiner, R. (2008). Double Standards? International Standards to prevent and control pipeline oil Spills, Compared with Shell practices in Nigeria. A report submitted to Friends of the Earth, Netherlands. Ukeje, C. (2001). Youths, Violence and the Collapse of Public Order in the Niger Delta. Africa Development, 1(2), 337-366. UNDP. (2017). Niger Delta Human Development Report. UNDP. (2006). Niger Delta Human Development Report. Abuja: UNDP UNEP. (2011). Environmental Assessment of Ogoni land. UN Environment Programme 2011. United Nations Environment Programme. (2011). Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland Report. Nairobi: United Nations Environmental Programme Yakubu, O. H. (2017). Addressing Environmental Health Problems in Ogoniland through Implementation of United Nations Environmental Program Recommendation Environmental Management Strategies. Environments, 4(28), 2-19. Zabbey, N. (2009). Petroleum and pollution – how does that impact human rights? Stockholm Amnesty International.
Copyright (c) 2019 Okafor Samuel O, Okafor Joachim C
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Author (s) should affirm that the material has not been published previously. It has not been submitted and it is not under consideration by any other journal. At the same time author (s) need to execute a publication permission agreement to assume the responsibility of the submitted content and any omissions and errors therein. After submission of a revised paper, the editorial team edits and formats manuscripts to bring uniformity and standardization in published material.
This work will be licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) and under condition of the license, users are free to read, copy, remix, transform, redistribute, download, print, search or link to the full texts of articles and even build upon their work as long as they credit the author for the original work. Moreover, as per journal policy author (s) hold and retain copyrights without any restrictions.