The Relationship between Health Outcomes and Household Socio-Economics Characteristics
The economic circumstance of a household is in most cases linked to the varied situations a household may find itself income is to a greater extent linked to the housing and food that a household is exposed to. Income among other socio-economic factors may also affect the demand structure of the household in terms of what the household may consider necessary or not. The level of household demand for health services and its preventive level may also be associated with other household characteristics especially those associated with the head of the household. This paper analysed the relationship between the morbidity rate in a household and the household characteristics and the characteristics of the head of household. The paper uses data collected in the South African general household survey published in 2017 conducted by Statistics South Africa. Based on a sample of 21601 households, the study employs a multinomial logistic model with the level of morbidity rate categorised into a high level, mild, and low. The results of the empirical analysis show that Household size, the gender of head of household, housing insecurity status age of head of household and income were significant determinants of morbidity rate at the household level. The contribution of the paper is therefore a proposal for preventive mitigation as opposed to treatment which tends to be more expensive on government. The fact that housing insecurity is a competing need with health demand calls for better alignment in terms of government, provision of health services in South Africa. This paper is motivated by the initiative of the introduction of a national health Insurance (NHI) is South Africa.
Benzeval, M., Bond, L., Campbell, M., Egan, M., Lorenc, T., Petticrew, M. & Popham, F. (2014). How does money influence health? JRF - Joseph Rowntree Foundation, (March), 70.
Bonnefoy, X. (2007). Inadequate housing and health: an overview. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 30(3/4), 411.
Braveman, P., Egerter, S. & Barclay, C. (2011). Income , Wealth and Health. Exploring the Social Determinants of Health, (April).
Broton, K. M. & Goldrick-Rab, S. (2018). Going Without: An Exploration of Food and Housing Insecurity Among Undergraduates. Educational Research, 47(2).
Cameron, K., Song, J., Mnaheim, L. & Dunlop, D. (2010). Gender Disparities in Health and Healthcare Use, Journal of Women's Health, 19(9).
Chisadza, C. (2015). Education and Fertility : Panel Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa. Working Paper, (May).
Cutler, D. & Lleras- Muney, A. (2016). Policy brief, (May), 1â€“11.
Dahl, G. B. & Lochner, L. (2012). The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit. American Economic Review, 102(5), 1927â€“1956.
Drimie, S. & Casale, M. (2009). Multiple stressors in Southern Africa: the link between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, poverty and childrenâ€™s vulnerability now and in the future. AIDS Care, 21(1), 28â€“33.
Dunga, S. H. & Grobler, W. (2017a). The nexus of food and housing insecurity in south. International journal of social sciences and humanity studies, 9(2), 95â€“108.
Dunga, S. H. & Grobler, W. C. J. (2017b). The nexus of food and housing insecurity in south. International journal of social science and humanity studies, 9(2), 95â€“108.
FAO. (2013). Food security and Nutrition in the Southern and Eastern rim of the Mediterranean basin. (M. Smulders, M. Aw-Dahir, K. Dunn, & R. Verduijn, Eds.).
Feinstein, L., Sabates, R., Anderson, T. M., Sorhaindo, A. & Hammond, C. (2006). What are the effects of education on health? Proceedings of the Copenhagen Symposium, 26, 171â€“354.
Fikree, F. F. & Pasha, O. (2004). Role of gender in health disparity: the South Asian context. BMJ, 328(7443), 823â€“826.
Groot, W. & van den Brink, H. M. (2006). What does education do to our health ? Proceedings of the Copenhagen Symposium, 355â€“363.
Helsing, K., Moyses, S. & Comstock, G. (1981). Factors associated with mortality after widowhood. Amer. J. Public Health, 71(8), 802â€“809.
HLEG. (2010). Gender and Health. High-Level Expert Group Report on Universal Health Coverage for India, 295â€“300.
Hutchinson, G., Simeon, D. T., Bain, B. C., Wyatt, G. E., Tucker, M. B. & Lefranc, E. (2004). Social and Health Determinants of Well Being and Life Satisfaction in Jamaica. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50(1), 43â€“53.
Institute, P. H. (2016). Food Security, Climate Change, and Health. Public Health Institute.
Krieger, J. & Higgins, D. L. (2002). Housing and health: Time again for public health action. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 758â€“768.
Labadarios, D., Mchiza, Z. J. R., Steyn, N. P., Gericke, G., Maunder, E. M. W., Davids, Y. D. & Parker, W. (2011). Food security in South Africa: a review of national surveys. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(12), 891â€“899.
Mncayi, N. P. & Dunga, S. H. (2017). Determinants of housing insecurity in a low income. International journal of economics and finance studies, 9(2), 117â€“133.
Nazli, H. & Malik, S. J. (2003). Housing : Opportunity , Security , and Empowerment for the Poor. The Pakistan Development Review, 4, 893â€“906.
Paul Schultz, T. (2002). Why governments should invest more to educate girls. World Development, 30(2), 207â€“225.
Rauh, V. A., Landrigan, P. J. & Claudio, L. (2008). Housing and health: Intersection of poverty and environmental exposures. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 276â€“288.
UN. (2016). Food Security and Health Policy Brief by the Scientific Advisory Board of the UN Secretary-General 28 December 2016, (December).
Weiser, S., Palar, K., Hatcher, A., Young, S., Frongillo, E. & Laraia, B. (2015). Food Insecurity and Health: A Conceptual Framework. Food Insecurity and Public Health, (May), 23â€“50.
Who. (2003). DAC Guidelines and Reference Series: Poverty and Health.
Woolf, S. H., Simon, S. M., Aron, L., Zimmerman, E., Dubay, L. & Luk, K. X. (2015). How Are Income and Wealth Linked to Health and Longevity? Urban Institute, (April), 1â€“22.
World Health Organization. (2007). Health in the Green Economy: Housing Sector, 1â€“6.
Zimmerman, E. & Woolf, S. H. (2014). Understanding the Relationship Between Education and Health. IOM Roundtable on Population Health Improvement.
Copyright (c) 2019 Steven Henry Dunga
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Author (s) should affirm that the material has not been published previously. It has not been submitted and it is not under consideration by any other journal. At the same time author (s) need to execute a publication permission agreement to assume the responsibility of the submitted content and any omissions and errors therein. After submission of a revised paper in the light of suggestions of the reviewers, editorial team edits and formats manuscripts to bring uniformity and standardization in published material.
This work will be licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) and under condition of the license, users are free to read, copy, remix, transform, redistribute, download, print, search or link to the full texts of articles and even build upon their work as long as they credit the author for the original work. Moreover, as per journal policy author (s) hold and retain copyrights without any restrictions.