Training, Organisational Commitment and Turnover Intention among Nigerian Civil Servants
This article reports on a study that focused on analysing the impact of training and development (T&D) on organizational commitment and turnover intention among Nigerian public workers. The main objective of the study was to determine whether T&D influences employeesâ€™ commitment to the organization and the intention to stay or to leave the organization. Using a survey questionnaire and personal interview, data was collected from 297 civil servants and 8 departmental heads in Nigeria. Statistical analytical methods such as regression analysis were used to test the two hypotheses formulated, which were focused on determining the relationship between T&D and turnover intention; as well as T&D and the perceived impacts on employeesâ€™ commitment. The result suggests a positive correlation between T&D and organizational commitment and turnover intention. The result implies that investing in human capital is a critical strategic initiative for contemporary organizations because the ability of any organization to compete successfully is a function of the ability to retain their skilful and committed employees. The study contributes to knowledge in the field, as not much research has been done on the effects of T&D on public servants in Nigeria. Most of the studies have been carried out in Europe, America, Asia and largely in the manufacturing and service sectors.
Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 47(2), 269â€“292.
Adeniji, M. A. (2010). Training and its multiplier effect on productivity at the Olabisi Onabanjo University
Library, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of Management and Development Studies, 1(1), 124â€“
Adiele, N. (2009). Effective business training methods.
Agarwal, A. (2012). Difference between on the job and off the job training. Retrieved from
Akanji, T. & Bankole, R. A. (2007). International briefing 19: Training and development in Nigeria.
International Journal of Training and Development, 11(3), 223â€“233.
Akinyele, T. S. (2007). The impact of the Nigeria training programme on employee performance. Research
Alani, A. R. & Isola, A. W. (2009). Human capital development in Nigeria. Institute of Organization and
Management in Industry, 15(3), 58â€“71.
Alipour, M., Salehi, M. & Shahnavaz, A. (2009). A study of on the job training effectiveness: Empirical evidence
of Iran. International Journal of Business and Management, I4 (11), 63â€“68.
Awe, B. R. (2010). Effective business training methods. Retrieved from
Balogun, A. (2011). Evaluation: The first step in the training cycle. Journal of Economics and Behavioural
Studies, 2(2), 50â€“56.
Becker, G. S. (1993). Nobel lecture: The economic way of looking at behaviour. Journal of Political Economy,
Blenkner, M. & Rose, B. (2006). Tailored and on-going training can improve job satisfaction. Retrieved from
Brum, S. (2007). What impact does training have on employee commitment and employee turnover? Schmidt
Labour Research Centre Seminar Research Series. Retrieved from
Bulut, C. & Culha, C. (2010). The effects of organizational training on organizational commitment.
International Journal of Training and Development, 14(4), 309â€“322.
Chand, S. (2008). Training methods: On the job training and off the job training methods. Retrieved from
Chen, W. & Hirschheim, R. (2004). A paradigmatic and methodological examination of information systems
research from 1991 to 2001. Information Systems Journal, 14, 197â€“237.
Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2010). Surveys, longitudinal, cross-sectional and trend studies. In: Cohen
L, Manion L, Morrison K, eds. Research Methods in Education, 7th Ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 261â€“4.
Cook, S. K. & Rice, E. (2003). Social exchange theory. Retrieved from
Cooper, R. D. & Schindler, S. P. (2008). Business research methods (10th ed.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill.
Costen, W. M. & Salazar, J. (2011). The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Job Satisfaction,
Loyalty, and Intent to Stay in the Lodging Industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality &
Tourism, 10(3), 273â€“284,
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative
research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson, 204-35.
Devan, J. (2006). Social exchange theory.
De Vos, A. S., Strydom, H., FouchÃ©, C. B. & Delport, C. S. L. (2006). Research at grass roots: For the social
sciences and human service professions (3rd ed.). Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Dumas, A., Hanchane, S. & Royaume du, M. (2010). How does job-training increase firm performance? The
case of Morocco. International Journal of Manpower, 31(5), 585â€“602.
Dysvik, A. & Kuvaas, B. (2008). The relationship between perceived training opportunities, work motivation
and employee outcomes. International Journal of Training and Development, 12(3), 138â€“157.
Ellis, J. & Johnson, C. (Eds.) (2014). Reinforcement theory. Retrieved from http://learning-theory-andpractice.
Flaherty, C. N. (2007). The effect of employer-provided general training on turnover: Examination of tuition
reimbursement programs. Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research. Retrieved from
Flanagan, M. J. (2010). Measuring the effectiveness of L&D. Retrieved from
Forsyth, P. (2001). Developing your staff. London: Kogan Page.
Hansson, B. (2008). Job-related training and benefits for individuals: A review of evidence and explanations.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) education working paper no. 19.
Retrieved from http://library.ukzn.ac.za/TopNav/ElectronicResources/databasesbysubject927.aspx
Hatala, J. P. & Fleming, P. R. (2007). Making transfer climate visible: Utilizing social network analysis to
facilitate the transfer of training. Human Resource Development Review, 6(1), 33-63.
Heath, L. R. (2007). Reinforcement theory.
Hormans, G. C. (1958). Social behavior as exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63(6), 597-606.
Indradevi, R. (2010). Training for Most Capable Workforce. Advances in Management, 3(12), 49â€“54.
Joint Admission & Matriculation Board. (2016). 2016 application statistics. Retrieved February 10, 2017, from
Jonck, K. (2001). An introduction to training management for the new millennium in South Africa (2nd ed.).
Cape Town: Cape Technikon.
Jones, M. K., Jones, R. J., Latreille, P. L. & Sloane, P. J. (2008). Training, job satisfaction and workplace
performance in Britain: Evidence from Wers 2004. WELMERC, School of Business and Economics,
Swansea University. Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp3677.pdf
Khan, A. A., Abbasi, S. O. B. H., Waseem, R. M., Ayaz, M. & Ijaz, M. (2016). Impact of Training and Development
of Employees on Employee Performance through Job Satisfaction: A Study of Telecom Sector of
Pakistan. Business Management and Strategy, 7(1), 29-46.
Klein, J. H. (2001). Invited reaction: The relationship between training and organizational commitment â€“ a
study in the health care field. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 12(4), 353â€“361.
Koster, F., De Grip, A. & Fouarge, D. (2009). Does perceived support in employee development affect
KumpikaitÄ—, V. & ÄŒiarnienÄ—, K. (2008). New training technologies and their use in training and development
activities: Survey evidence from Lithuania. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 9(2), 155â€“
Kunasz, M. (N.d.). Methods and techniques used in vocational training. Retrieved from
Kuvaas, B. & Dysvik, A. (2009). Perceived investment in employee development, intrinsic motivation and
work performance. Human Resource Management Journal, 19(3), 217â€“236.
Marimuthu, M., Arokiasamy, L. & Ismail, M. (2009). Human capital development and its impact on firm
performance: Evidence from developmental economics. The Journal of International Social Research,
MSQ. (1977). Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Retrieved February 11, 2017, from
Natarajan, N. K. & Nagar, D. (2011). Induction age, training duration & job performance on organizational
commitment & job satisfaction. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 491-497.
Nduchiadi. (2011). Training and development: The secret to employee retention. Retrieved from
Newman, A., Thanacoody, R. & Hui, W. (2011). The impact of employee perceptions of training on
organizational commitment and turnover intentions: A study of multinationals in the Chinese service
sector. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(8), 1765â€“1787.
Nickels, D. (2009). The effects of training on employee performance. Retrieved from
Nikandrou, I., Brinia, V. & Bereri, E. (2009). Trainee perceptions of training transfer: An empirical
analysis. Journal of European Industrial Training, 33(3), 255-270.
Obisi, C. (2011). Employee training and development in Nigerian organisations: Some observations and
agenda for research. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(9), 82â€“91.
Ogundele, O. J. K., Hassan, A. R. & Ibraheem, A. (2011). Projecting the possible impacts of the National
Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) on human development in Nigeria.
International Journal of Economics and Finance, 3(4), 162â€“169.
Okotoni, O. & Erero, J. (2005). Manpower training and development in the Nigerian public service. African
Journal of Public Administration and Management, 16(1), 1-13.
Oluwatobi, S. O. & Ogunrinola, O. I. (2011). Government expenditure on human capital development:
Implications for economic growth in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(3), 72-80.
Omodia, S. M. (2009). Manpower development in Nigeria: Conceptual and methodological perspectives.
Journal of Social Sciences, 18(2), 113â€“117.
Owoyemi, O. A., Oyelere, M., Elegbede, T. & Gbajumo-Sheriff, M. (2011). Enhancing employeesâ€™ commitment to
the organisation through training. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(7), 280â€“286.
Pajo, K., Coetzer, A. & Guenole, N. (2010). Formal development opportunities and withdrawal behaviors by
employees in small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management, 48(3), 281â€“
Pallant, J. (2011). A step by step guide to data analysis using the SPSS programme: Survival manual (4th ed.).
Australia: Allen and Unwin.
Panagiotakopoulos, A. (2011). Workplace learning and its organizational benefits for small enterprises:
Evidence from Greek industrial firms. The Learning Organization, 18(5), 350â€“360.
Pettinger, R. (2002). Mastering employeesâ€™ development. New York, NY: Palgrave.
Poro, A. (2009). Effective business training methods. Retrieved from
Pulley, P. A. (2006). On-the-job-training: Easy to do if you have the right program. Retrieved from
Rabey, G. (2007). Diagnose â€“ then act. Some thoughts on training today. Industrial and Commercial Training
Journal, 39(3), 164â€“169. Retrieved from www.citeulike.org/article/1248882
Rothwell, W. J. & Kazans, H. C. (2004). Improving on-the-job training: How to establish and operate a
comprehensive OJP programme (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research methods for business students (5th ed.). England:
Pearson Education Limited.
Shadare, A. O. (2010). Influence of workersâ€™ training programmes on conflict reduction in industrial
organizations in Nigeria. African Journal of Business Management, 4(7), 1240â€“1246.
Shelton, K. (2001). The effects of employee development programs on job satisfaction and employee
retention. Retrieved from http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2001/2001sheltonk.pdf
Sieben, I. (2005). Does training trigger turnover ... or not? The impact of formal training on young menâ€™s and
womenâ€™s job search behaviour. Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market. Retrieved from
Silberman, M. & Philips, P. (2006). The 2006 ASTD training and performance sourcebook. Retrieved from
Smith, G. P. (2011). Training and development lead to higher productivity and retention. Retrieved from
Sunyoung, P. & Hea, J. Y. (2008). The impact of participation in HRD programs on employee job satisfaction
and organizational commitment in South Korea. Retrieved from
Taiwo, A. S. (2007). The impact of Nigerian training programmes on employeesâ€™ performance. Research
Journal of Business Management, 1(1), 11â€“19.
Ugboro, I. O. (2006). Organizational commitment, job redesign, employee empowerment and intent to quit
among survivors of restructuring and downsizing. Institute of Behavioural and Applied Management.
Venkatesh, R. (2009). Training and development: What is the difference between training and development?
Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Whats-The-Difference-Between-Training-and-
Williams, R. & Arnett, L. (2008). The ROI of Employee Training and Development: Why a Hearty Investment in
Employee Training and Development is so important. (Online) Available from:
Young, C. (2007). Employee training and development encourages employee retention. Retrieved from
Copyright (c) 2019 Nwokeiwu Johnson, Ziska Fields, Nwali Anthony Chukwuma
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Author (s) should affirm that the material has not been published previously. It has not been submitted and it is not under consideration by any other journal. At the same time author (s) need to execute a publication permission agreement to assume the responsibility of the submitted content and any omissions and errors therein. After submission of a revised paper in the light of suggestions of the reviewers, editorial team edits and formats manuscripts to bring uniformity and standardization in published material.
This work will be licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) and under condition of the license, users are free to read, copy, remix, transform, redistribute, download, print, search or link to the full texts of articles and even build upon their work as long as they credit the author for the original work. Moreover, as per journal policy author (s) hold and retain copyrights without any restrictions.