Work Intensification: A Stumbling Block to Work Life Balance?
Of recent, studies on work intensification have surfaced in many sectors of the work environment and, with work-life balance being triggered by numerous variables. Employees are working harder and faster to meet tight deadlines and the speed of work has escalated resulting in a negative association with their health. The study aims to assess whether work intensification hinders work-life balance and affects employeesâ€™ daily tasks. A quantitative approach was selected for the study and, both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized. Hypotheses testing were part of the study and most were partially accepted. The simple random sample was chosen and a sample of 100 employees was drawn. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire. The results showed that work intensification and work-life balance occurred at varying degrees and improvements were required in several areas. The adverse results of work intensification and high-involvement work processes have a tremendous impact on the employeesâ€™ work-life balance. The study culminates with a projection on recommendations, conclusion and, practical implications are reflected upon based on the study.
Burchielli, R., Pearson, P. & Thanacoody, P. R. (2006). Exploring work intensification in teaching: A research agenda. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (Online), 31(2), 71-81. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/ 233250067? accountid=11921. Burchell, B., Lapido, D. & Wilkinson, F. (2002). Job Insecurity and Work Intensification. London: Routledge Burke, R. J., Singh, P. & Fiksenbaum, L. (2010). Work intensity: potential antecedents and consequences. Personnel Review, 39(3), 347-360. doi:10.1108/00483481011030539. Crompton, R. (2006). Employment and the family: The reconfiguration of work and family life in contemporary societies. New York: Cambridge University Press. Dachapalli, L. P. & Parumasur, S. B. (2012). Employee susceptibility to experiencing job insecurity. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 15(1), 31. Dainoff, M. J. (2007). Ergonomics and health aspects of work with computer: International conference, EHAWC 2007, held as part of HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22-27: Proceedings. Germany: Springer. de Klerk, M. & Mostert, K. (2010). Work-home Interference: Examining Socio-demographic Predictors in the South African Context. South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 8(1), 1-10. doi:10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.203. De De Witte, H. (2005). Job Insecurity: Review of the International Literature on Definitions, Prevalence, Antecedents and Consequences. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(4), 1-6. Down, R. (2001). Getting the best out of the Ergonomics approach. The Safety & Health Practitioner, 19(2), 3437. Retrieved April 29, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com/ docview/201006766?accountid=11921. Forma, P. (2009). Work, family and intentions to withdraw from the workplace. International Journal of Social Welfare, 18(2), 183-192. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2397.2008.00585.x. Gordon, J. R., Pruchno, R. A., Wilson-Genderson, M., Murphy, W. M. & Rose, M. (2012). Balancing care giving and work: Role conflict and role strain dynamics. Journal of Family Issues, 33(5), 662-689. Goulding, A. & Kerslake, E. (1996). Flexible working in libraries: profit and potential pitfalls, Library Management, 17(2), 8-16. Green, F. (2004). Why has work effort become more intense? Industrial Relations, 43(4), 709-741. doi:10.1111/j.0019-8676.2004.00359.x. Green, F. (2004). Work Intensification, Discretion, and the Decline in Well-being at Work. Eastern Economic Journal, 30(4), 615-625. Retrieved July 11, 2013 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198043823?accountid=11921. Green, F. (2001). Itâ€™s been a Hard Dayâ€™s Night: The Concentration and Intensification of Work in Late Twentieth-Century Britain. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 39(1), 53-80. Green, F. & McIntosh, S. (2001). The intensification of work in Europe. Labour Economics, 8(2), 291-308. doi: 10.1016/S0927-5371(01)00027-6. Hannabuss, S. (1998), Flexible jobs: changing patterns in information and library work. New Library World, 99(1141), 104-111. Huang, Y., Du, P., Chen, C. & Huang, I. (2011). Mediating Effects of Emotional Exhaustion on the Relationship Between Job Demand-Control Model and Mental Health. Stress & Health, 27(2), 94-109. James, A. (2011). Workâ€“life (im) â€˜balanceâ€™ and its consequences for everyday learning and innovation in the New Economy: evidence from the Irish IT sector. Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 18(5), 655-684. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2011.601805. Jang, S. J. (2009). Relationships of flexible work schedules, workplace support, supervisory support, work/life balance, and the well-being of working parents. Journal of Social Service Research, 3, 93-104. Kelly, E. L. & Moen, P. (2007). Rethinking the Clockwork of Work: Why Schedule Control May Pay Off at Work and at Home. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(4), 487-506. Kinnunen, U., Geurts, S. & Mauno, S. (2004). Work-to-family conflict and its relationship with satisfaction and well-being: a one-year longitudinal study on gender differences. Work and Stress, 18(1), 1-22. Kinder, A., Hughes, R. & Cooper, C. L. (Eds.). (2008). Employee Well-Being Support: A Workplace Resource. England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Lauzun, H. M., Morganson, V. J., Major, D. A. & Green, A. P. (2010). Seeking Work-Life Balance: Employees' Requests, Supervisors' Responses, and Organizational Barriers. Psychologist-Manager Journal (Taylor & Francis Ltd), 13(3), 184-205.
Lawton, L. (2010). Work-Family Balance, Family Structure and Family-Friendly Employer Programs. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://paa2010.princeton.edu/papers/100573. Lazar, I., Osoian, C. & Ratiu, P. (2010). The role of work-life balance practices in order to improve organizational performance. European Research Studies, 13(1), 201-213 Matthews, R. A., Swody, C. A. & Barnes-Farrell, J. L. (2012). Work Hours and Work-Family Conflict: The Double-edged Sword of Involvement in Work and Family. Stress & Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 28(3), 234-247. May, D. R., Reed, K., Schwoerer, C. E. & Potter, P. (2004). Ergonomic Office Design and Aging: A QuasiExperimental Field Study of Employee Reactions to an Ergonomics Intervention Program. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9(2), 123-135. Mudge-Riley, M., McCarthy, M. & Persichetti, T. E. (2013). Incorporating Wellness Into Employee Benefit Strategies- Why It Makes Sense. Benefits Quarterly, 29(4), 30-34. McNamara, T. K., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Matz-Costa, C., Brown, M. & Valcour, M. (2013). Across the continuum of satisfaction with workâ€“family balance: Work hours, flexibility-fit, and workâ€“family culture. Social Science Research, 42(2), 283-298. Naswall, K., Hellgren, J. & Sverke, M. (Eds.). (2008). The Individual in the Changing Working Life. New York: Cambridge University Press. Nitzsche, A., Pfaff, H., Jung, J. & Driller, E. (2013). Work-life balance culture, work-home interaction, and emotional exhaustion: A structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 55(1), 67-73. O'Connor, M. A. (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility for Work/Family Balance. St. John's Law Review, 79(4), 1193-1220. Pallarito, K. (2006). Overburdened and underâ€appreciated, school audiologists forge ahead. Hearing Journal, 59(9), 19-24. Pasca, R. & Wagner, S. L. (2011). Occupational Stress in the Multicultural Workplace. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 13(4), 697-705. doi:10.1007/s10903-011-9457-6 Pile, K. W. (2001). Approaching ergonomics in the new millennium. Pulp & Paper, 75(9), 25. Porter, G. & Kakabadse, N. K. (2006). HRM perspectives on addiction to technology and work. Journal of Management Development, 25(6), 535-560. Rehman, M. A. U., Haq, I. U., Jam, F. A., Ali, A. & Hijazi, S. T. (2010). Psychological contract breach and burnout, mediating role of job stress and feeling of violation. European Journal of Social Sciences, 17(2), 232237. Rothmann, S. (2008). Job satisfaction, occupational stress, burnout and work engagement as components of work-related wellbeing: empirical research. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 34(3), 1116. Retrieved April 23, 2013 from http://reference.sabinet. Shah, S. S. H., Jaffari, A. R., Aziz, J., Ejaz, W., Ul-Haq, I. & Raza, S. N. (2011). Workload and performance of employees. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(5), 256-267. Singh, A. (2013). Female employeesâ€™ perceptions of work-life balance at a banking institution in the Durban region. Unpublished Masterâ€™s thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Sonnentag, S. & Bayer, U. (2005). Switching Off Mentally: Predictors and Consequences of Psychological Detachment From Work During Off-Job Time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(4), 393â€“ 414. Sparks, K., Faragher, B. & Cooper, C. L. (2001). Well-being and occupational health in the 21st century workplace. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74, 489-509. Stranks, J. (2005). Stress at Work: Management and Prevention. Oxford, UK: Elsevier ButterworthHeinemann. Subramanyam, M., Muralidhara, P. & Pooja, M. (2013). Mental Workload and Cognitive Fatigue: A Study. IUP Journal of Management Research, 12(2), 29-39. Sue Ling, L., Chang, J. & Lien Yin, H. (2012). Does Effect of Workload on Quality of Work Life Vary With Generations? Asia Pacific Management Review, 17(4), 437-451. doi:10.6126/APMR.2012.17.4.06. Sverke, M., Hellgren, J., NÃ¤swall, K., Chirumbolo, A., De Witte, H. & Goslinga, S. (2004). Job insecurity and union membership. European unions in the wake of flexible production. Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang. Tayfur, O. & Arslan, M. (2013). The role of lack of reciprocity, supervisory support, workload and workâ€“family conflict on exhaustion: Evidence from physicians. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 18(5), 564-575.
Tucker, E., Kao, T. & Verma, N. (2005). Next-Generation Talent Management: Insights on How Workforce Trends Are Changing the Face of Talent Management. Business Credit, 106(7), 20-27. Van Wyk, M. & Pienaar, J. (2008). Towards a research agenda for job insecurity in South Africa. Southern African Business Review, 12(2), 49-86. Retrieved June 11, 2013 from http://reference.sabinet.co.za/webx/access/electronic_journals/sabr/sabr_v12_n2_a3.pdf. van Zyl, L., van Eeden, C. & Rothmann, S. (2013). Job insecurity and the emotional and behavioural consequences thereof. South African Journal of Business Management, 44(1), 75-86. Voydanoff, P. (2007). Work, Family and Community: Explaining Interconnections. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Walinga, J. & Rowe, W. (2013). Transforming stress in complex work environments: Exploring the capabilities of middle managers in the public sector. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 6(1), 66 â€“ 88. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1108/ 17538351311312420. Waller, A. D. & Ragsdell, G. (2012). The impact of e-mail on work-life balance. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 64(2), 154-177. doi:10.1108/00012531211 215178. Webber, M., Sarris, A. & Bessell, M. (2010). Organizational Culture and the Use of Work-Life Balance Initiatives: Influence on Work Attitudes and Work-Life Conflict. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Organizational Psychology, 3(1), 54-65. doi:10.1375/ajop.3.1.54.
Copyright (c) 2017 Aaliya Abdoolla, Patsy Govender
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Author (s) should affirm that the material has not been published previously. It has not been submitted and it is not under consideration by any other journal. At the same time author (s) need to execute a publication permission agreement to assume the responsibility of the submitted content and any omissions and errors therein. After submission of a revised paper in the light of suggestions of the reviewers, editorial team edits and formats manuscripts to bring uniformity and standardization in published material.
This work will be licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) and under condition of the license, users are free to read, copy, remix, transform, redistribute, download, print, search or link to the full texts of articles and even build upon their work as long as they credit the author for the original work. Moreover, as per journal policy author (s) hold and retain copyrights without any restrictions.